Detailed Penelope Course Description
Scope and Objectives
This course is designed for researchers
in Radiation Physics and its applications. The main objective is to
provide the participants with a detailed description of the new, 2019,
version of PENELOPE, with an ample perspective on Monte Carlo methods
for simulation of electron/photon transport. The course will consist of
theoretical lectures and handson sessions. Basic aspects of Monte Carlo
sampling methods and scoring, physical interaction models, constructive
quadric geometry, and transport schemes for charged particles will be
introduced in the theoretical lectures. Benchmark comparisons with
experiments will also be presented to illustrate the capabilities and
reliability of the code.
Handson sessions will be
based on the generic main program PENMAIN, which operates with a variety
of radiation sources (now including radioactive sources) in material
structures described by the quadric geometry tool PENGEOM. The exercises
will be performed with a new graphical user interface that largely
simplifies the operation of the code. Handson sessions will deal with:
 1) the installation of required software (Fortran compiler, gnuplot) and the simulation programs and tools (GUIs)
 2) the use of PENMAIN for the set of examples provided in the distribution package
 3) the design of simulations of other experimental arrangements (geometry, radiation source, simulation parameters)
As in previous editions, the duration of the course is four and a half days. The number of participants is limited to a maximum of 14.
Syllabus (T, theory; P, practical):
T1. Monte Carlo simulation. Basic concepts

T1.1. Random sampling methods
T1.2. Monte Carlo integration. Statistical uncertainties
T1.3. Simulation of radiation transport. Scoring
T1.4. Concepts in variance reduction
T2. Physics of photon interactions

T2.1. Rayleigh scattering
T2.2. Photoelectric effect
T2.3. Compton scattering
T2.4. Pair production
T2.5. Scattering of polarised photons
T3. Physics of electron/positron interactions

T3.1. Elastic scattering
T3.2. Inelastic scattering
T3.3. Bremsstrahlung emission
T3.4. Positron annihilation
T4. Electron/positron transport mechanics

T4.1. Multiple elastic scattering
T4.2. Energyloss straggling
T4.3. Condensed and mixed simulation schemes
T4.4. The random hinge method
T4.5. Simulation parameters: accuracy vs. simulation speed
T4.6. Transport in electromagnetic fields
T5. Geometry

T5.1. Quadric surfaces
T5.2. Constructive quadric geometry
T5.3. The PENGEOM geometry package
T5.4. Geometry editor/viewer/debugger PenGeomJar
P1. The PENELOPE code system

P1.1. Structure of the simulation package
P1.2. Software installation
P1.3. Generation of material data files (MATERIAL)
P1.4. Visualization of macroscopic parameters (TABLES)
P1.5. Visualization of electronphoton showers (SHOWER)
P1.6. Radiometric quantities: linear energy deposition
P2. Practical simulations with PENMAIN

P2.1 Structure of the input file: source definition, simulation
parameters
P2.2. Scoring: impact detectors, angular detectors, energydeposition detectors
P2.3. Graphicaluser interface
P2.4. Examples in the distribution package
P2.5. Designing the simulation of your application
Teachers of the Training Course / Tutorial
Francesc Salvat, Randy Schwarz